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Your Science Resources

We’re committed to empowering our patients with essential knowledge of aging science and longevity pathways. Understanding these mechanisms is essential to reclaiming control and optimizing one’s health.

Your Science Resources

We’re committed to empowering our patients with essential knowledge of aging science and longevity pathways. Understanding these mechanisms is essential to reclaiming control and optimizing one’s health.

Latest Articles

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topical rapamycin

The Role of Rapamycin (Sirolimus) in Treating and Normalizing Cell Growth in Keratosis Pilaris

Keratosis Pilaris (KP), commonly known as "chicken skin," manifests as dry, rough, and bumpy patches on the skin, often causing significant discomfort and cosmetic concern. Traditional treatments primarily manage symptoms without addressing the root cause, leaving many patients seeking more effective solutions. This article delves into the novel application of rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, in treating KP. By targeting the mTOR pathway, rapamycin helps normalize cell growth and reduce keratin buildup, which are central to KP's pathology. A case study is presented where a 15-year-old patient achieved significant and sustained improvement in skin texture and redness after applying a 1% topical rapamycin cream over 18 months. This promising approach highlights rapamycin's potential to offer a more effective and lasting treatment for KP, shifting the focus from symptom management to addressing underlying cellular mechanisms.

By: Shreshtha Jolly, Shriya Bakhshi

May 18th, 2024

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Analyzing Longevity Practices: Caloric Restriction, Genetic Manipulation, and Pharmacological Mimetics

In the evolving landscape of geroprotective science, this review article meticulously examines various anti-aging strategies, emphasizing their evaluation through survival curves—a pivotal tool in longevity research. We explore several prominent interventions, including caloric restriction, genetic manipulation, and pharmacological treatments like Rapamycin, delving into how each modulates lifespan across different biological models, from yeast to mammals. By dissecting survival curve data, we assess the effectiveness of these strategies in extending lifespan and enhancing healthspan, providing a clear comparative analysis. This article not only scrutinizes the biological mechanisms behind these interventions but also discusses the broader implications for human longevity.

By: Shreshtha Jolly, Shriya Bakhshi

May 11th, 2024

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Lab Testing

Biomarkers

Exercise

Lipids

Cardiovascular Health

Beyond the Lipid Hypothesis: Reframing Cholesterol's Role in Healthspan and Managing Heart Health

In this research narrative review, we explore the relationship between cholesterol, cardiovascular health, and longevity, emphasizing the multifaceted role of cholesterol beyond its conventional association with cardiovascular diseases. We discuss the significant roles of triglycerides and HDL in cardiovascular and metabolic health, emphasizing the triglyceride-to-HDL ratio as a critical indicator of metabolic dysfunction and cardiovascular risk. We emphasize the mechanisms by which these lipids influence carbohydrate metabolism and cholesterol flux, and the importance of managing elevated triglycerides through lifestyle interventions. Additionally, the article highlights the correlation between optimal metabolic health and enhanced cardiovascular function in athletes, demonstrating how metabolic efficiency supports heart health. By advocating for a comprehensive approach to lipid management that encompasses broader health assessments, we aim to refine strategies for cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment.

By: Dr. Richard Cohen, Shriya Bakhshi

May 4th, 2024

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rapamycin

Female Fertility

The Role of Rapamycin in Preserving Female Fertility, Enhancing Ovarian Health, and Postponing Menopause

Among the several benefits of rapamycin to human health, recent research has begun to demonstrate that rapamycin may have significant benefits for women's health, particularly in preserving ovarian function, extending fertility, and delaying menopause. How does rapamycin work to promote ovarian function? In this article, Dr. Ryan Marshall from the Metabolic & Molecular Physiology Research Group at the University of Birmingham reviews these latest findings and how rapamycin may be utilized to enhance reproductive health and longevity in women.

By: Dr Ryan N. Marshall, PhD.

May 2nd, 2024

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mTOR

Biomarkers

Aging

longevity

Lab Testing

Iron Overload and Cellular Aging: The Critical Interplay Between Iron and Copper in mTOR Signaling and Oxidative Stress

This review examines the interaction between iron and copper metabolism and their effects on cellular function and aging. It discusses iron's dual role as an essential nutrient and a contributor to oxidative stress, inflammation, and mTOR pathway activation, which are linked to age-related diseases like Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, cancer, and cardiovascular disorders. The review also covers how copper's control over iron can lessen these negative effects by lowering iron levels, thereby reducing mTOR activity, ROS production, and inflammation. Additionally, it explores how copper deficiency may worsen iron overload, complicating disease progression. By detailing the mechanisms of iron-copper interactions and their influence on disease, the review emphasizes the importance of balanced trace mineral levels to counteract age-related cellular dysfunction and promote healthier aging.

By: Shreshtha Jolly, Dr. Richard Cohen, Daniel Tawfik, Shriya Bakhshi

April 27th, 2024

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Understanding the Aging Brain: The Role of Biomarkers in Predicting Neurological Health

As the human brain ages, it undergoes extensive structural and functional transformations that predispose individuals to neurodegenerative diseases. Recognizing these changes early is pivotal, as it could lead to timely intervention strategies. Current research is thus increasingly directed towards identifying reliable biomarkers that can predict the pace and nature of brain aging. These biomarkers are essential for crafting targeted interventions that could delay or alleviate the symptoms of age-related neurological conditions. This review consolidates recent progress in identifying such biomarkers and their efficacy in prognosticating alterations in brain health. We delve into the physiological changes characteristic of an aging brain and discuss state-of-the-art techniques for their quantification. Furthermore, we provide a critical analysis of the present research landscape while also projecting future trends. Our comprehensive review aims to shed light on how these emergent biomarkers could change our approach to managing neurological health in the elderly.

By: Shreshtha Jolly, Shriya Bakhshi

April 20th, 2024

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Aging

science

health

Biomarkers

Understanding Aging Through Advanced Biomarkers: A Detailed Overview

Age, typically measured in years, does not fully capture the complex physiological changes that truly reflect an individual's health. This article examines the difference between chronological age and biological age, emphasizing the role of biomarkers in accurately assessing health. It explores key mechanisms of aging, such as genomic instability, telomere attrition, mitochondrial dysfunction, and altered cellular communication, which are crucial for understanding aging and associated diseases. Although measuring all these markers is ideal for gauging aging, practical challenges limit such assessments. The article highlights specific biomarkers that provide a clearer indication of health, discussing their significance in predicting health outcomes and guiding therapeutic development.

By: Shreshtha Jolly, Shriya Bakhshi

April 13th, 2024

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rapamycin

Exploring Rapamycin's Potential Role in Managing Menopausal Symptoms

This review article investigates the potential of rapamycin, an mTOR pathway inhibitor, in alleviating symptoms associated with menopause, a natural biological process signifying the end of menstrual cycles and marked by a range of physical and emotional changes. By examining the biological underpinnings of menopause, including hormonal shifts and their systemic effects, the article sets the stage for understanding rapamycin's mechanism of action. Specifically, it explores how rapamycin's regulation of the mTOR pathway may mitigate menopausal symptoms by influencing ovarian function and extending the reproductive lifespan. Drawing on animal studies and initial human research, the review assesses the evidence for rapamycin's efficacy in improving menopausal outcomes. This article contributes to the ongoing discussion on menopause management and the search for effective treatments, emphasizing rapamycin's role in addressing the challenges of reproductive aging.

By: Shreshtha Jolly, Shriya Bakhshi

April 5th, 2024

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Defense against perceived threat: Revealing the restorative and healing potential of the Cellular Danger Response

The Cell Danger Response (CDR) epitomizes the body's sophisticated defense mechanism against a spectrum of threats, from environmental pollutants to biological stressors. This article delves into the intricacies of the CDR, unveiling its pivotal role in mediating the body's reaction to disturbances that could compromise cellular homeostasis and overall health. By exploring the multifaceted phases of the CDR, including initiation, signal transduction, and resolution, the article sheds light on how cells orchestrate a comprehensive response to mitigate threats, emphasizing the central role of mitochondria in this process. Further, it examines the dual nature of the CDR's impact on health, where its adaptative functions in response to seasonal changes and environmental challenges contrast sharply with its potential to precipitate chronic health conditions when aberrantly sustained. The discussion extends to the implications of persistent CDR activation in disease development, particularly how it can disrupt metabolic pathways, alter the gut microbiome, and affect developmental processes, potentially leading to conditions such as autism, ADHD, allergies, and asthma. By providing a nuanced understanding of the CDR's role in health and disease, this article underscores the importance of managing environmental and lifestyle factors that can inadvertently trigger prolonged CDR activation. It concludes by highlighting the significance of further research into the CDR for developing interventions that could moderate its activation, thereby reducing the risk of associated chronic diseases and improving health outcomes.

By: Shreshtha Jolly, Shriya Bakhshi

March 29th, 2024

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mTOR

Aging

topical rapamycin

hyperfunction

Cellular Senescence

rapamycin

science

Autophagy, Cellular Senescence, and the Promise of Topical Rapamycin in Hair Regeneration

Hair loss, beyond its aesthetic implications, serves as a visible indicator of the broader, systemic aging processes occurring within the body. This research review article examines the potential of rapamycin, a known mTOR pathway inhibitor, in altering hair follicle dynamics to encourage hair growth by addressing two key cellular processes: autophagy and cellular senescence. Impaired autophagy and increased cellular senescence are pivotal in the deterioration of hair follicle health, leading to hair thinning and loss. We explore the molecular intricacies of these processes and their impact on hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs), highlighting the crucial role of the mTOR pathway in regulating autophagy. Rapamycin's inhibition of mTOR to enhance autophagy presents a novel approach for combating the adverse effects of aging on hair follicles, proposing a significant stride toward innovative hair restoration treatments. By synthesizing recent studies, this review underscores the relevance of autophagy modulation in not only advancing hair loss therapies but also contributing to the broader aging research field.

By: Daniel Tawfik

March 23rd, 2024

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rapamycin

metformin

Aging

Nature's Design Paradox: Aging as an Inherent Software Flaw

Aging, that inevitable march towards senescence, has puzzled and intrigued scientists for centuries. Traditionally, our understanding of aging has centered on wear and tear, with the belief that our cells and tissues break down over time due to accumulated damage. However, a fresh perspective by Dr. João Pedro de Magalhães challenges this narrative, suggesting that the very processes responsible for our growth and development might also be driving our decline after we hit our reproductive prime.

By: Daniel Tawfik

March 16th, 2024

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The Molecular Basis of Exercise and Neuroregeneration: Revelations from a Pivotal Blood Plasma Transplantation Study

Regular physical activity is crucial for mitigating neurodegeneration and enhancing cognitive function during aging, acting through both molecular and systemic channels to decrease inflammation, regulate mTOR signaling, promote autophagy, correct metabolic imbalances, and improve circulatory health, thereby maintaining neuronal health. This week's Research Review focuses on a groundbreaking study demonstrating that sedentary mice receiving blood infusions from exercise-trained counterparts showed significant cognitive improvements, indicating the potential transferability of exercise benefits. The review examines the alterations in gene expression leading to neuron growth, particularly spotlighting the protein GPLD1's role in emulating the cognitive and neurogenic advantages of exercise. This research highlights the neuroprotective effects of physical activity and its contribution to extending healthspan, providing fresh insights into the molecular foundations of exercise's defense against cognitive decline and suggesting innovative approaches to harness these benefits.

By: Daniel Tawfik

March 2nd, 2024

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The Longevity of Muscle: Evaluating the Efficacy of Strength vs. Endurance Training in Preserving Muscle Function into Old Age

In this Research Review, we examine the nuanced effects of aging on muscle composition and the efficacy of strength versus endurance training as interventions to counteract age-related decline in muscle function and mass. Drawing upon a pivotal study featured in the Journal of Applied Physiology, the review delves into the comparative impacts of these exercise modalities on various aspects of muscular health, including strength, neuromuscular function, VO2 max, and muscle fiber composition. By highlighting the specific advantages of strength training in preserving fast-twitch muscle fibers and enhancing muscle strength, akin to younger physiological profiles, against endurance training's notable benefits in cardiorespiratory fitness, the analysis challenges traditional perceptions of aging. We argue for a multifaceted exercise approach as a crucial strategy in mitigating age-related muscle loss and redefining the aging process, underscoring the profound potential of targeted physical activity to influence healthspan and functional independence in older adults.

By: Daniel Tawfik

February 24th, 2024

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Exercise

fitness

Zone 2 Endurance Training and Its Relationship With Longevity, Cardiovascular, and Musculoskeletal Health

For a decade, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has dominated the fitness world, thanks to its touted ability to enhance health and performance. Recent advances have begun to explore the impact of much slower endurance-based training on metabolic health and potentially longevity. We will deep dive into this training practice to discuss how to incorporate this into your daily life and what's going on at the cellular, molecular & whole-body level when you train in zone 2 & 5. Lastly, we'll look at how these training modalities impact longevity, reduced risk of all-cause mortality, and the benefits of maintaining endurance exercise your entire life.

By: Dr Ryan N. Marshall, PhD.

February 17th, 2024

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Acarbose

Microbiome

Telomeres

Aging

Anti-Inflammation

From Glucose Control to Gut Health: How Acarbose Bridges Metabolic Disease Management, Microbiome Science, and Aging Processes

Acarbose is widely recognized for its efficacy in managing Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) through blood sugar regulation. Yet, its value extends significantly into areas of gut health and longevity, unveiling a broader therapeutic potential. The gut microbiota, an integral part of our physiological ecosystem, is crucial for overall health, with imbalances affecting aging and life quality. This article explores Acarbose's impact beyond glucose control, highlighting its role in enhancing gut microbiota composition and supporting a holistic approach to health and longevity. By bridging metabolic disease management with microbiome science, Acarbose presents a promising avenue for extending quality life, marking a paradigm shift in our understanding and treatment of T2D and its associated conditions

By: Shreshtha Jolly, Shriya Bakhshi

February 10th, 2024

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Anti-Inflammation

LDN

Understanding the Role of Low-Dose Naltrexone in the Context of Long COVID

In the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, the medical community is grappling with the complexities of long COVID, a condition that leaves patients in a protracted battle with lingering symptoms. Low-Dose Naltrexone (LDN) has been identified as a potential therapeutic candidate due to its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. In this in-depth analysis, Shreshtha Jolly from Johns Hopkins University's Department of Molecular Biology critically evaluates LDN's utility in managing long COVID. It specifically focuses on analyzing the molecular mechanisms by which LDN may exert therapeutic effects. Originally developed for addiction treatment, LDN's interaction with opioid receptors and subsequent modulation of the immune response suggests a novel approach to mitigating the long-term sequelae of COVID-19. This article provides a detailed examination of LDN's potential mechanisms of action, contributing to the understanding of its role in the management of long COVID and proposing a new direction for treatment strategies.

By: Shreshtha Jolly

February 9th, 2024

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Anti-Inflammation

nutrition

Data-Driven Diets: How Dietary Fiber Influences Healthspan and Disease Resistance

This review article focuses on the critical role of dietary fiber in enhancing health outcomes and promoting longevity, underscoring its significance in disease prevention and lifespan extension. We synthesize existing research to explore the comprehensive effects of both soluble and insoluble dietary fibers on human health. Highlighting the importance of dietary fiber in improving digestive health, managing cholesterol levels, regulating diabetes, and maintaining overall gut health, this paper details how these indigestible carbohydrates positively influence metabolic processes, aid in weight management, and interact with the gut microbiota to generate beneficial short-chain fatty acids. Through a detailed case study on psyllium husk, we demonstrate the synergistic potential of dietary modifications alongside pharmacological approaches in the management of cholesterol, emphasizing the critical need to address the prevalent fiber deficiency in contemporary diets. Furthermore, we discuss the extensive public health implications of increasing fiber intake and outline the mechanisms by which dietary fiber can protect against various chronic diseases and enhance mortality rates. This article argues for a greater emphasis on fiber-rich foods within daily dietary practices, positioning dietary fiber as a powerful, yet underutilized, component in the pursuit of healthy aging.

By: Agnieszka Balazy, MPharm, RPh

February 3rd, 2024

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Neurological Health

Cognitive Health

Multiple Sclerosis

Anti-Inflammation

The Multidimensional Benefits of Low-Dose Naltrexone

Navigating the complex terrain of chronic pain and fatigue syndromes unveils a myriad of intertwined physiological and neurological pathways. Central to this exploration is Low-Dose Naltrexone (LDN), a versatile therapeutic agent. In this in-depth review, we unravel the multifaceted mechanisms of LDN's action, focusing on its unique interactions with microglial cells in the brain and its modulation of opioid receptors. We delve into the emerging scientific evidence illustrating LDN's efficacy in mitigating pain, alleviating fatigue, and improving mental well-being in conditions like Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS), neuropathic pain, and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). Additionally, we explore LDN's potential in addressing mental health challenges, particularly in anxiety and depression, offering new insights into its broader role in enhancing overall health and quality of life.

By: Shreshtha Jolly

January 27th, 2024

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Cognitive Health

Neurological Health

Aging

Anti-Inflammation

cancer prevention

Dr. Rhonda Patrick

Exercise

Understanding the Mechanisms: A Comprehensive Analysis of Dr. Rhonda Patrick's Insights on Vigorous Exercise and its Impact on Longevity and Brain Health

In this analysis, Shreshtha Jolly from the Johns Hopkins Department of Molecular Biology provides a scientific exploration into the myriad benefits of vigorous exercise as highlighted in Dr. Rhonda Patrick's podcast "The Longevity & Brain Benefits of Vigorous Exercise." The article delves into the molecular and physiological impacts of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT), focusing on its profound influence on heart and brain health, cancer prevention, and the aging process. This comprehensive review aims to elucidate the significant role of vigorous exercise in enhancing overall well-being, marrying Dr. Patrick's expertise with cutting-edge research in the field.

By: Shreshtha Jolly, Daniel Tawfik

January 20th, 2024

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skin care

topical rapamycin

Cellular Senescence

science

The Science of Skin Senescence: Rapamycin's Role in Targeting the Root Causes of Dermal Aging

In a realm where the pursuit of health and longevity intersects with the cutting-edge of molecular biology, skin aging is not just a cosmetic concern but a bio-molecular challenge to be decoded and reversed. It is the visible clock of our biological age, ticking away in the form of fine lines, wrinkles, and elasticity loss, but its roots run deep into the cellular machinery of our body. In this detailed review, Shreshtha Jolly from Johns Hopkins University's Department of Molecular Biology takes us on a deep dive into the cellular underpinnings of dermal aging. Here, we dissect the complex interplay of DNA damage, cellular senescence, oxidative stress, and the intricate communication between various skin cells that contribute to the aging phenotype of the skin. This analysis isn't just about understanding the 'why' of skin aging; it's a quest to uncover the 'how' – how can we intervene, manipulate, and potentially reverse these underlying processes?

By: Shreshtha Jolly, Daniel Tawfik

January 13th, 2024

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fitness

nutrition

science

health

The Boundless Anabolic Response to Protein Post-Exercise

For years, a pervasive myth in nutrition and fitness circles has been that the human body can only utilize up to 30 grams of protein in a single sitting. This belief has shaped dietary guidelines and influenced the eating habits of athletes and health-conscious individuals alike. However, new research is turning this notion on its head, suggesting that there may be no definitive upper limit to how our bodies respond to protein ingestion. This latest study marks a significant shift in our understanding of protein metabolism, particularly in the context of post-exercise recovery. It reveals that consuming increasingly larger amounts of protein leads to a corresponding increase in protein absorption, muscle protein synthesis rates, and overall whole-body protein balance. These findings not only challenge the long-held belief in a strict protein utilization limit but also open up new avenues in nutritional science and dietary planning. This article aims to delve into the nuances of this study, examining how it reshapes our understanding of protein metabolism and its practical implications for everyday nutrition and athletic performance.

By: Daniel Tawfik

December 30th, 2023

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Cognitive Health

Neurological Health

longevity

Mindfulness and Meditation: Exploring the Neurobiological Impact of Meditation on Stress, Health, and Longevity

Meditation, long valued for its calming effects, has gained recognition as an influential tool for stress reduction and enhancing mental well-being. Recent research has begun to unveil its extensive neurological benefits, offering new insights into its effects on cognitive function and brain physiology. What specific neurological changes does meditation induce, and how do these contribute to enhanced longevity and cognitive function? In this week's Research Review, Shreshtha Jolly from the Johns Hopkins Department of Molecular Biology delves into these significant neurological processes. Her analysis explores how meditation optimizes neurotransmitter signaling and reduces inflammation, both vital for maintaining mental and physical health. Furthermore, she explores the role of mindfulness and meditation in stimulating neurogenesis and fostering the growth of neural networks in pivotal brain regions—a process of critical significance for cognitive health, particularly in the context of aging. Lastly, she examines meditation's influence on cortisol levels and the adrenal system.

By: Shreshtha Jolly, Shriya Bakhshi

December 23rd, 2023

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Neurological Health

Aging

Anti-Inflammation

fitness

Dr. Rhonda Patrick

Cellular Senescence

science

Sauna

longevity

The Longevity Benefits of Heat: Dissecting the Science Behind Sauna Therapy for Optimal Healthspan

Recent advancements in longevity science have illuminated the significant role of saunas in enhancing overall healthspan and reducing stress, as well as neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. In the last decade, a torrent of new data on the health benefits of heat stress has emerged, which establishes a dose-response relationship between regular sauna use and a reduction in disease prevalence. But what underpins this connection between sauna use, improved healthspan, and reduced mortality rates? Central to our examination is the biological concept of hormesis—the body’s adaptive response to the mild stress of heat exposure experienced during sauna sessions. We explore how this hormetic response, particularly the increased production of heat shock proteins (HSPs), is crucial in repairing damage linked to age-related diseases and contributes to reduced mortality rates and improved healthspan. The review provides an in-depth analysis of sauna practices, delving into their physiological and molecular impacts, and offering insights into optimizing sauna use by combining traditional methods with modern scientific understanding.

By: Shreshtha Jolly, Shriya Bakhshi, Daniel Tawfik

December 15th, 2023

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Engineering a High-Performance Metabolism: Insights from Healthspan's Dr. Richard Cohen

In this Research Review, the focus is placed on understanding human metabolism, presented as the engine responsible for converting fuel into energy, essential for optimal bodily function. Dr. Richard Cohen, a physician with extensive experience in performance medicine, provides a detailed examination of metabolic dysfunction. By comparing the efficiency of a well-functioning metabolism to that of a high-performance vehicle, this article highlights the importance of maintaining metabolic health for overall well-being. Dr. Cohen's analysis addresses the mechanisms underlying metabolic dysfunction, its consequences, and strategies for maintenance and optimization. Through his expertise, the article aims to offer a comprehensive perspective on metabolic processes, emphasizing the significance of an efficient metabolic system in sustaining health and preventing disease.

By: Dr. Richard Cohen

December 9th, 2023

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Cognitive Health

Aging

Alzheimer's

Feeding the Mind: The Impact of Diet on Neurogenesis and Synaptic Plasticity in Aging

While much of our body ceases to grow after a certain age, our brains are a remarkable exception. They constantly evolve, giving birth to new cells through neurogenesis and building and rearranging their flexible cellular connections, known as synaptic plasticity. Recent advances in neuroscience have increasingly focused on understanding how our brain's growth and development shift with age and what proactive steps we can take to ensure optimal cognitive health. In this Research Review article, we aim to provide a more comprehensive and in-depth overview of the changes in our brains as we age. Additionally, we will explore the intriguing role of diet in maintaining brain health, illuminating how our food choices directly impact neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity in adulthood. This discussion offers insightful perspectives on potential dietary strategies to combat the aging process in the brain.

By: Shreshtha Jolly, Shriya Bakhshi

December 2nd, 2023

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Parkinson's Disease

Cognitive Health

Microbiome

Acarbose

Exploring the Pivotal Role of Gut Dysbiosis in Aging and Parkinson's Disease

In the field of Neuroscience, recent research has focused on the potential role that the gut microbiome may play in the development of age-related neurological disorders such as Parkinson's Disease. Recent research has found that the development of Parkinson’s may have a surprising connection to the gut microbiome, a complex community of microorganisms living in our digestive tract. In this Research Review Article, we will explore how our gut changes with age and how these changes affect the development of diseases like Parkinson's. Additionally, we will uncover compelling strategies that can slow down aging and potentially ease Parkinson’s challenges by targeting the gut microbiome.

By: Shreshtha Jolly, Shriya Bakhshi

November 25th, 2023

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rapamycin

mTOR Signaling and Neurodegenerative Disorders: Exploring the Therapeutic Potential of Rapamycin

As the scientific community grapples with neurodegenerative disorders, the study of mTOR signaling provides a glimmer of optimism. But what's the connection between mTOR and debilitating conditions like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's? And how can we leverage this knowledge to stave off cognitive decline? In this article, we dive deep into the molecular intricacies of mTOR pathways and their potentially profound implications in neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, we delve into the therapeutic promise of rapamycin, a molecule that may herald a paradigm shift in neurodegenerative disease management and prophylaxis.

By: Daniel Tawfik

November 20th, 2023

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rapamycin

cancer prevention

The Role of Senescence in Crafting Cancer-Friendly Microenvironments

The incidence of cancer increases exponentially as we age. One link between age-related cancer and degeneration could be an inflammatory tissue environment driven by MTOR in senescent cells. In her pivotal 2010 research paper, "The Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotype: The Dark Side of Tumor Suppression," Dr. Judith Campisi delves into how senescent cells create to a cellular 'microenvironment' favorable for cancer progression. In this article, we review Campisi's important insights and explore the potential of rapamycin to mitigate the cancer-promoting tendencies of these dysfunctional senescent cells.

By: Daniel Tawfik

November 19th, 2023

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mTOR

autophagy

metformin

Taming Aging With Metformin: How A Diabetes Medication Can Change The Way We Age

If you have diabetes or know someone who does, it is likely that you are familiar with metformin—a first-line medication universally used in the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In recent years, numerous studies have provided evidence that its benefits extend beyond blood sugar control, suggesting that metformin is capable of taming the detrimental effects of aging by reducing both inflammation and oxidative stress, and promoting autophagy. The positive health effects commonly observed in individuals with T2DM who use metformin, along with insights gained from studies in animals like worms and mice, have raised a compelling question: could metformin potentially serve as an anti-aging medication, capable of extending healthspan?

By: Agnieszka Balazy, MPharm, RPh, Shriya Bakhshi

November 16th, 2023

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Aging

Cellular Senescence

Telomeres

Telomeres and the Pursuit of Extended Lifespan

In this research review, we analyze the intricacies of telomere biology and its implications for human health and longevity. Telomeres, the 'timers' of cell life, gradually shorten with each division, leading to cellular senescence—making telomeres pivotal biomarkers in the study of aging. The focus of recent scientific inquiry has shifted to telomerase, the enzyme responsible for adding length to telomeres, thus offering a countermeasure to the aging process. However, the resurgence of telomerase activity is a double-edged sword; while it may hold the key to prolonged cell vitality and improved tissue regeneration, its aberrant activity is closely linked to cancer development, highlighting the complex role of telomerase in human biology. This article assesses the current landscape of telomerase research, acknowledging the enzyme's dualistic nature. We probe the intricate challenges that scientists face in leveraging telomerase for therapeutic benefits, emphasizing the need for caution and the profound implications of this research for the future of medicine.

By: Shriya Bakhshi, Nandika Mishra

November 10th, 2023

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Multiple Sclerosis

rapamycin

Cognitive Health

mTOR

Examining mTOR's Influence on Multiple Sclerosis: A Scientific Review of Rapamycin's Therapeutic Potential

Even though more than 1.8 million individuals worldwide are diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis, the exact cause of the disease remains unclear, with scientists believing that it arises from a complex interplay of genetic, environmental, and immunological factors. Recent studies have cast the spotlight on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, which is believed to play a significant role in MS pathophysiology. The heightened activity of mTOR is gaining recognition for its potential to influence the course of MS, presenting new therapeutic opportunities to modulate this pathway. A recent narrative review paper by Dr. Aigli Vakrakou from the University of Athens provides a comprehensive analysis of emerging approaches to the treatment of Multiple Sclerosis. The review provides a thoughtful analysis of mTOR's role within the cellular framework and its impact on the progression and symptoms of MS. In our comprehensive Research Review, we delve into the pivotal role of mTOR inhibition in MS. We present findings on how this inhibition can bolster autophagy, potentially leading to improved clinical outcomes for MS sufferers. Moreover, we examine the influence of mTOR regulation on T cells and the ensuing impact on immune system equilibrium, with the aim of decreasing MS-related symptoms.

By: Shriya Bakhshi

November 3rd, 2023

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rapamycin

Rapamycin's Horizon: What Upcoming Clinical Trials Reveal About the Future of Rapamycin

Over the past several years, rapamycin has captivated the scientific and medical communities with its promising potential as an anti-aging compound. Pioneering studies suggest that this molecule could play a pivotal role in delaying the onset of age-related diseases and possibly extending lifespan. However, as with many groundbreaking discoveries, its use in the realm of longevity is still shrouded in questions and uncertainty. The optimal dosage, long-term impacts, and the full scope of its therapeutic benefits remain areas of active research and exploration. In this review, we will delve deeper into rapamycin's intricacies, and highlight how new clinical trials are inching us closer to understanding its transformative impact on age-related health and longevity.

By: Shriya Bakhshi

October 28th, 2023

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rapamycin

Rapamycin Research and Clinical Trials: A Synthesis of Recent Scientific Findings

The mTOR pathway has emerged as a focal point in the realm of longevity science. When mTORC1's signals are controlled, it potentially paves the way for a longer, healthier existence. Contrastingly, mTORC2 reveals a more complex tale, with its suppression leading to metabolic complications and decreased survival rates in mice. Rapamycin, a compound frequently highlighted in our previous research reviews, targets this pivotal pathway. The intrigue around rapamycin is rooted in its dual nature: it might extend lifespan and counteract age-related ailments, but it also walks a fine line between the benefits of inhibiting mTORC1 and the risks tied to inadvertently suppressing mTORC2. In this comprehensive analysis, we delve deep into the latest research on rapamycin to elucidate its potential and influence on the most critical markers of longevity and healthspan—highlighting the vital nuances of how dosing influences its potential benefits and side effect profile.

By: Shriya Bakhshi

October 22nd, 2023

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Cellular Senescence

The DNA Repair Paradox: Balancing Stability and Senescence

In our previous research review articles, we explored the intricate factors contributing to the aging process, with a specific focus on molecular pathways and underlying mechanisms. In this week's research review, we delve into the intriguing and paradoxical role played by DNA Damage Response (DDR) programming, which is crucial for maintaining DNA stability. However, with advancing age, the constant activation of this system can pose significant challenges to cellular health, leading to phenomena such as senescence, inflammation, and the onset of age-related diseases. We spotlight the research conducted by Qian, Zhou, Tanaka, and Takahashi, who have undertaken a comprehensive examination of the intricate interplay between protective responses and their paradoxical contribution to accelerated aging in later stages of life.

By: Shriya Bakhshi

October 15th, 2023

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rapamycin

Metabolic Aging: What Research on Metabolic Pathways Tells Us About Healthspan

In past articles, we delved deeply into the impact of cellular dysfunction on aging and the associated tissue degeneration. We focused on the role of senescent cells that accelerate age-related decline in tissue function. We have discussed in detail how the dysfunction of these damaged cells is characterized by toxic overactivity and growth, which compromises overall tissue function and accelerates aging. In this segment, we'll pivot to a detailed exploration of metabolic health, particularly the signaling pathways responsible for nurturing or inhibiting these dysfunctional cells. As we age, the cellular mechanisms that detect nutrient levels and gauge the energy status of cells start to falter. This article aims to shed light on the consequences of this metabolic decline and its interplay with aging.

By: Daniel Tawfik, Shriya Bakhshi

October 8th, 2023

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nutrition

Eat Less, Live Longer? Insights into the Geroprotective Effects of Calorie Restriction and Prolonged Fasting on Metabolic Health & Longevity

It is well-established that calorie restriction can improve metabolic health in multiple preclinical models, as well as delay or at least slow down the rate of biological aging by reducing the incidence of developing age-related pathologies. Other dietary manipulations, such as complete fasting and/or time-restricted feeding, have also gathered attention as alternative approaches to improve metabolic flexibility and lifespan. Yet, what is the actual impact of these dietary approaches, and how do they fare in real-world applications? A groundbreaking study published in Nature Metabolism by Professor Dudley Lamming’s research team seeks to decipher the mysteries surrounding these diets. We delve into the intriguing findings of this study, exploring the pros and cons of different calorie restriction models and their implications for human health and longevity, offering you a concise overview and critical insights into translating these dietary manipulations to everyday life.

By: Dr Ryan N. Marshall, PhD.

September 30th, 2023

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acarbose

nutrition

Are the Longevity Benefits of Acarbose Rooted in Its Effect on the Gut Microbiota?

When the National Institute for Aging tested over a dozen longevity molecules, acarbose was one of five molecules shown to increase lifespan. The intrigue around acarbose stems from its dual function: it influences metabolic health and reshapes our gut microbiota. But how does this alteration in microbial balance translate to enhanced healthspan? This article probes the notion that the healthspan-promoting benefits of acarbose are intrinsically linked to its role in diversifying the gut microbiome and amplifying the production of short-chain fatty acids.

By: Daniel Tawfik

September 16th, 2023

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longevity

How Skeletal Muscle Mass Impacts Cognitive Health

Sarcopenia, commonly associated with the frailty of advanced age, goes beyond mere muscle weakness—it holds potential implications for our cognitive faculties. But what links the muscle's decline to the brain's? The answer, it seems, could lie in the realm of myokines—specific chemicals our muscles dispatch during exercise, intricately connected to brain health. Factor in disturbances like insulin imbalances, protein metabolism anomalies, compromised mitochondrial functions, mounting inflammation, and a portrait of cognitive erosion emerges. In their recent review, Oudbier et al. dissect these connections. In this research review, we dive into their analysis, revealing the biochemical and physiological connections between skeletal muscle and the brain, and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cognitive decline.

By: Daniel Tawfik

September 9th, 2023

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longevity

Understanding LDN's Impact on Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

The persistent battle against chronic inflammatory ailments highlights an unyielding hyperactivity of our immune system. But could the answer lie in LDN, a promising anti-inflammatory agent? In this comprehensive review, we dive deep into the mechanisms by which LDN modulates our immune response, revealing not just its interaction with opioid receptors, but its profound influence on endorphin levels and inflammation. Delving further, we scrutinize LDN's effects on three prominent chronic inflammatory diseases: Multiple Sclerosis, Fibromyalgia, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD).

By: Daniel Tawfik

September 2nd, 2023

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rapamycin

fitness

nutrition

Rapamycin and Muscle Growth: A Review of the Glass Lab's use of Rapamycin to Reverse Sarcopenia and Anabolic Resistance

As we age, our bodies exhibit a reduced capacity to construct new muscle protein, even in the presence of anabolic stimuli like resistance exercise or protein intake. This perplexing state has captivated scientists for decades, yet the molecular mechanisms behind anabolic resistance have remained ambiguous. Emerging evidence from the pioneering lab of Dr. David J. Glass, MD, sheds light on a potential player in this enigma: the dysregulation of a signaling pathway known as mTOR. By delving into the intricacies of mTOR signaling, Dr. Glass and his team have begun to unravel the mysteries of anabolic resistance, providing insights into the cellular processes that underlie this physiological phenomenon.

By: Daniel Tawfik

August 8th, 2023

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Anti-Inflammation

Endorphins and Anti-Inflammation: A Review of Low-Dose Naltrexone's (LDN) Potential in Extending Healthspan and Treating Chronic Diseases

As longevity science uncovers surprising connections between seemingly unrelated drugs and health outcomes, the curious case of Low-Dose Naltrexone (LDN) has captured researchers' attention. Originally designed as a treatment for addiction, LDN's impact on our biological systems has revealed unexpected benefits in modulating the immune response and fighting chronic inflammatory diseases. Through subtle increases in endorphin production and a cascade of anti-inflammatory responses, LDN presents an intriguing opportunity for enhancing overall well-being. In this article, we explore the multifaceted potential of LDN in extending healthspan, delve deeper into its proposed mechanisms of action, and examine its therapeutic applications in conditions like Multiple Sclerosis, Fibromyalgia, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)—highlighting an unlikely candidate turned powerful ally in the pursuit of longevity and health.

By: Daniel Tawfik

August 5th, 2023

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nutrition

longevity

health

science

From Thirst to Thrive: The Impact of Optimal Hydration on Aging and Wellness

In the quest for a longer, healthier life, we often focus on diet, exercise, supplements, and sleep, neglecting a seemingly simple yet surprisingly potent factor: hydration. While water appears modest, its role in our health is far from ordinary. Emerging scientific evidence reveals a fascinating link between optimal hydration and a multitude of benefits, including delayed aging, reduced chronic disease risk, and enhanced overall well-being. This article delves into the science behind optimal hydration, exploring its impact on various aspects of health and equipping you with practical tips to capture its potential for a longer, healthier life.

By: Agnieszka Balazy, MPharm, RPh

August 1st, 2023

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rapamycin

cancer prevention

Examining Rapamycin's Role in Cancer Prevention: Insights from Dr. Mikhail Blagosklonny's Research

Mikhail Blagosklonny's theory of cellular hyperfunction has shifted our understanding of aging by proposing that it's not a result of cellular decline or damage accumulation but rather an overactive state of cellular metabolism. One of the most infamous examples of this is cancer. In a recent research perspective article, Blagosklonny outlined the role of rapamycin in slowing both the progression and delaying the onset of cancer. In this week’s research review, Jacob Rose, from the Buck Institute for Aging Research, discusses the multiple mechanisms of rapamycin that impede cancer development and formation.

By: Daniel Tawfik, Jacob Rose

July 30th, 2023

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science

Decoding Disease: The Power of Advanced Microscopy Techniques

In this installment of the Science Literacy Series, Jacob Rose, from the Buck Institute on Aging, dives into the fascinating world of microscopy, charting its evolution from a simple tool for viewing thin tissue sections to a powerful instrument capable of illuminating complex cellular interactions. He explores how innovative staining techniques and fluorescence microscopy are revolutionizing our understanding of diseases, particularly cancer, and guiding the development of targeted treatments. This article aims to simplify the understanding of these advanced microscopy techniques and highlight their critical role in diagnosing diseases and conducting research.

By: Jacob Rose

July 22nd, 2023

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longevity

The Science of Cold Exposure: Understanding its Impact on Human Health through Cold Water Swimming, Plunge Pools, and Cold Showers

The recent rise in interest around cold exposure therapy has not only gripped the health-conscious circles on social media, but has also sparked crucial conversations among experts. But what underlies the health benefits of cold exposure therapy? In this review, Dr. Ryan Marshall, from the Metabolic & Molecular Physiology Research Group at the University of Birmingham, explores the latest research findings on cold exposure to shed light on the science behind the benefits and the underlying mechanisms that make this therapy effective.

By: Dr Ryan N. Marshall, PhD.

July 15th, 2023

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rapamycin

How Rapamycin Optimizes Immune System Function and Fights Immunosenescent Cells

As immune function declines with age, a ripple effect ensues that accelerates aging. In an attempt to improve immune function, Dr. Joan Mannick's research has led her to examine the effect of mTOR inhibition on improving the aging immune system’s function. Mannick's trials have shown that the use of very low doses or intermittent doses of mTOR inhibitors actually enhances immune function. Despite this, the paradoxical nature of rapamycin's effects raises fascinating questions about the intricate relationship between immunity and aging. In this article, we explore the profound implications of Mannick's findings and delve deeper into the curious case of rapamycin—an immunosuppressant turned ally in enhancing immunity.

By: Daniel Tawfik

July 8th, 2023

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Cellular Senescence

rapamycin

Exploring the Antagonistic Hallmarks of Aging and Potential Interventions

In the second part of our Hallmarks of Aging series, we explore the "Antagonistic Hallmarks," which include Cellular Senescence, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Deregulated Nutrient Sensing, Dysbiosis, Chronic Inflammation, Altered Cellular Communication, and Stem Cell Exhaustion. We uncover how these processes intricately shape our aging trajectory. Additionally, we'll explore interventions that have shown promise in reducing the harm caused by these hallmarks, paving the way for a better understanding of potential strategies to slow down the aging process.

By: Jacob Rose

July 1st, 2023

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rapamycin

metformin

The Hallmarks of Aging: 12 Starting Points for Healthy Aging

The "Hallmarks of Aging" represent a crucial turning point in the scientific understanding of the aging process. These hallmarks, first articulated in a landmark 2013 paper and recently expanded, capture the key physiological and molecular shifts that occur as we age. In this two-part article, we'll delve into these revised hallmarks, focusing first on the 'Primary Hallmarks,' and the age-related pathways they affect. To begin, we will start with the “Primary Hallmarks” of aging: Telomere Attrition, Genomic Instability, Epigenetic Alterations, Loss of Proteostasis, and Disabled Macroautophagy.

By: Jacob Rose

June 24th, 2023

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nutrition

glp-1

The Hidden Consequences: How GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Weight Loss Drugs Affect Lean Mass

Since GLP-1 was first discovered in the 1970s its role in human physiology remained largely unexplored for decades. However, in early 2005, the development of GLP-1 receptor agonists took the world by storm. Recent studies have shown their potential to significantly reduce body mass, particularly body fat in patients with obesity and type II diabetes. Despite this, Dr. Peter Attia has raised concerns about possible adverse effects on muscle mass. We explore Dr. Attia's perspective and delve into the relationship between GLP-1 and muscle mass in this piece.

By: Dr Ryan N. Marshall, PhD.

June 16th, 2023

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NAD

Rethinking NAD and Sirtuins: How Flawed Assumptions Reinforce Good Research Practices

Science and discovery are typically slow and painstaking processes, particularly when the goal is to produce factual results. The human tendency to seek swift solutions, especially in confronting mortality and disease, can lead to hasty conclusions. One example of this phenomenon was the pervasive belief in sirtuins as conserved longevity drugs—a viewpoint that has resulted in the considerable expenditure of time and resources. It's a cautionary tale for the scientific community—reminding us that the pursuit of knowledge should prioritize accuracy over expediency.

By: Jacob Rose

June 4th, 2023

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rapamycin

nutrition

Exploring the Impact of High-Protein Diets on Longevity and Metabolic Function

A common belief is that a high-protein diet will facilitate an increase in muscle mass, strength, and function across the lifespan. However, is a high-protein diet still beneficial in the absence of any resistance-type exercise? Recent evidence from the world-leading laboratory of Professor Dudley Lamming at the University of Wisconsin-Madison has shown a high-protein diet, without any exercise, causes insulin resistance and an accumulation of white adipose tissue in as little as 18 weeks, even when matched for caloric intake. Here we discuss these provocative findings, their mechanisms, and how to prevent them.

By: Dr Ryan N. Marshall, PhD.

May 6th, 2023

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topical rapamycin

skin care

Inhibiting Skin Senescence with Topical Rapamycin (Sirolimus): A Novel Approach to Anti-Aging Skincare

A recent study investigated the potential of rapamycin to slow down skin senescence when applied topically as a cream. The results were striking—patients who underwent the treatment exhibited a significant reduction in senescence markers and an overall younger skin phenotype. But how does it work? The study found that the treatment either prevented cells from entering senescence or increased the clearance of senescent cells. These findings could have far-reaching implications for the broader quest to deaccelerate the aging process across the body.

By: Daniel Tawfik

April 29th, 2023

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rapamycin

metformin

autophagy

The Paradox of Senescence: The Interplay Between Rapamycin, Autophagy, and Aging

Although inflammation represents a hallmark of aging, to grasp the underlying mechanisms of aging, we must delve deeper into the cellular state of senescence and the evolutionary pathways that culminate in a dysfunctional state. Indeed, the story of aging is fraught with paradoxes - the same cellular programming that once safeguarded us is ultimately responsible for driving us toward a state of dysfunction.

By: Daniel Tawfik

April 22nd, 2023

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rapamycin

Exploring the Role of Senescent Chondrocytes in Osteoarthritis and the Promise of Rapamycin

As researchers continue to search for a cure for osteoarthritis, recent studies have uncovered a fascinating link between hypertrophic and senescent chondrocytes - the cells that make up our cartilage - and the progression of the disease. But what causes this degenerative condition, and how can we stop it in its tracks? In this article, we delve into the science behind these cranky chondrocytes and explore their pivotal role in this debilitating condition. We also explore the exciting potential of microparticle rapamycin therapy, which delivers the drug directly to the affected joints and encourages a shift towards greater joint health and improved mobility.

By: Daniel Tawfik, Jacob Rose

April 15th, 2023

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rapamycin

hyperfunction

Rapamycin's Role as a Molecular Brake for Cellular Hyperfunction and Runaway Cells

Mikhail Blagosklonny's theory of cellular hyperfunction has shifted our understanding of aging by proposing that it's not a result of cellular decline or damage accumulation, but rather an overactive state of cellular metabolism. This idea challenges conventional wisdom and suggests that aging is a reversible phenomenon that can potentially be slowed down or even reversed. This shift in understanding has significant implications for how we approach the aging process.

By: Daniel Tawfik, Jacob Rose

April 8th, 2023

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sleep

How Sleep Impacts Aging

Sleep is incredibly important for the human body as a whole as well as on the cellular level. What causes alterations in the quantity and quality of sleep and what are the consequences of these changes are quite important questions. What changes exacerbate aging and a more dysfunctional physiology and what changes are caused by aging that are detrimental to your health as well. We will cover the characterization of related changes in sleep structure on both the macro and micro scale and cover the differences between men and women when it comes to sleep and age.

By: Daniel Tawfik

September 27th, 2022

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autophagy

mitophagy

Clearing out the Cellular Trash: The Importance of Mitophagy in the Removal of Damaged & Dysfunctional Mitochondria

As the lexicon of health, longevity, and anti-aging enthusiasts continues to evolve, one term - 'autophagy' - has solidified its place within the discourse. Nonetheless, a relatively lesser-known offshoot, 'mitophagy,' or mitochondrial-specific autophagy, remains more obscure despite its critical significance. Recent evidence has begun to show how critical this process is in maintaining proteostasis within a cell or tissue and how dysregulation of this process can result in the accumulation of damaged mitochondria.

By: Dr Ryan N. Marshall, PhD.

June 11th, 2022